Most at Risk Populations (marps)



National Implementing Framework

The Government of Kenya through the National AIDS Control Council (NACC) initiated programming for populations at higher risk for HIV within the 2nd Kenya National AIDS Strategic Plan period (2005-2010). This was premised on an increasing global recognition that HIV-related morbidity and mortality were significantly higher among key vulnerable populations namely female sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, and members of the adult population whose livelihoods were inextricably linked with the sex trade including clients of sex workers and fishing communities, and that these sub-populations represented a bridging opportunity of HIV transmission to the general population.

In 2009, evidence from the Kenya Modes of Transmission Study highlighted the concentrated epidemic among female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDU), their 33% contribution to new HIV infections in Kenya and the fact that they were grossly underserved in the national HIV response (Table 1 below). Using this evidence, combined with findings from the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (2008/9) the Government of Kenya revised the existing national HIV programming framework and prioritized comprehensive targeted programming for key populations in the 2009-2013, Kenya National HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan (KNASP III).

Table 1: Source - Modes of Transmission Study (2009)
Groups National Nyanza Nairobi Coast
Heterosexual sex within union/regular partnership 44.1% 38.5% 37.4% 37.9%
Casual heterosexual sex 20.3% 30.5% 23.0% 14.9%
Sex workers and their clients 14.1% 23.1% 14.7% 18.2
MSM and prison 15.2% 6.0% 16.4% 20.5%
Injecting drug users (IDUs) 3.8% - 5.8% 6.1%
Health facility related 2.5% 1.9% 2.7% 2.3%
Number of new infections 76,315 25,195 10,155 6,656
(Source: Mode of transmission study 2009)