Many people in Kenya are still not being reached with HIV prevention and treatment services. Just under half of adults who need treatment and only 1 in 3 children needing treatment are receiving it. Under the leadership of the NACC and the NASCOP, HIV prevention services for KPs in Kenya have expanded over the past two years, with new funding for HIV prevention directed at KPs being provided by the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) programmes of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US (CDC), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Recent strategic planning by Kenya’s NACC and the NASCOP has identified some key national priorities for prevention. A principal aim of the Kenyan National HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan 2009/10 – 2012/13 (KNASP III) is to reduce the number of new HIV infections by using evidence-based approaches to HIV prevention. These priorities include scaling up focused behavior change interventions in most at risk populations, strengthening prevention programmes for positive persons, expanding male circumcision services, scaling up prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage and quality, and focusing on changing social norms around multiple/concurrent partnerships.

The strategy also emphasizes that implementation processes should be evidence-based to ensure that they are effective and will achieve a substantial population-level impact. To do this, there are two imperatives: 1) highly effective implementation structures and processes to ensure that key intervention packages can be scaled up with quality; and 2) a robust knowledge translation process to ensure that prevention strategies and programmes are science-based.

The first step in developing targeted interventions for KPs is assessing their location, size and basic operational characteristics. Based on its wide experience, the World Bank and the University of Manitoba’s Centre for Global Public Health, partnered with NASCOP, NACC, the University of Nairobi and other partners to conduct a geographic mapping of KPs in Kenya. This report presents the findings of the mapping study.