The Government of Kenya (GoK) through the NACC initiated programming for populations at higher risk for HIV within the 2nd Kenya National AIDS Strategic Plan period (2005-2010). This was premised on an increasing global recognition that HIV-related morbidity and mortality were significantly higher among key vulnerable populations namely female sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, and members of the adult population whose livelihoods were inextricably linked with the sex trade including clients of sex workers and fishing communities, and that these sub-populations represented a bridging opportunity of HIV transmission to the general population.

In 2009, evidence from the Kenya Modes of Transmission Study highlighted the concentrated epidemic among female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDU), their 33% contribution to new HIV infections in Kenya and the fact that they were grossly underserved in the national HIV response.  Using this evidence, combined with findings from the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (2008/9), the Government of Kenya revised the existing national HIV programming framework and prioritized comprehensive targeted programming for Key Populations in the 2009-2013 Kenya National HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan (KNASP III).